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Mr. Burr, Principal
217 Walnut Lane
Princeton, NJ 08540

Tel: 609.806.4270
Fax: 609.806.4271
Guidance: 609.806.4272






2015 Fall: Grade SIx: Ancient World Cultures:  please study the notecards which we made in class for MR LIP: five themes of geography.
Movement: People, Ideas, Goods.

Due on Tuesday, Sept 22nd.: MR LIP written quiz on materials each student has filled out in note cards for me as we studied each one. There is an overview sheet for kids to memorize details with specific examples, also.
Spelling counts. Please write all terms. Study tonight and a "supported quiz" tomorrow,
Tuesday, as a change of plans to honor no homework over the holiday! Thank you for your hard work on this initial part of the curriculum for grade six.
Reminder: Movement (people, ideas, goods), Regions (Political, Location, Landform, Culture), Location (Absollute and relative) Interaction (sod houses in the West, changin bodies, Incas in the Andes) Holland using windmills and sea walls to gain more farmland) Place: human-built and natural features)

Reading Quiz: Tuesday, September 29th;
TERMS OF HISTORY STUDIED SO FAR: HISTORY, HISTORIAN, ARTIFACT, CHRONOLOGY, TIME-LINE.  BE ABLE TO WRITE THE TERM AND THE DEFINITION AND ANSWER; QUESTIONS ABOUT THE CLASSROOM READINGS!

Final quiz on 11 terms of history, moved to Wed. Oct 7th!
First RACE(R) Essay on the text reading from Hatchet by
on Tuesday, October 20th. Open notes on desk.

Second RACE(R) Essay on the creation of Stonehenge, its meaning and the newest
archaeological findings by Mike Parker Peason and his Riverside Archaeolgical Project
since 2004. Students will be given note sheets, review lessons and the aid of readings from MPP's book: Stonehenge Decoded. Open note essay on Thursday, October 29th.

November 23: Written assessment on Mesopotamian culture and "The Epic of Gilgamesh"
Students have notes from classwork and a written review sheet, and a review class on
the Friday before. Write definitions on a separate sheet, if needed.

November 24: The Ancient Egypt Focus Questions and Answers are not due until after the Thanksgiving Break, on Wed, December 2.  Mrs. Escher will be in school before classes to answer any questions and to give extra help to those students who need it!  Happy Thanksgiving!
News Flash and on chalkboard since Monday: Focus Questions on Egypt are due Friday,
December 4th. Please include question sheets and your written "sentence starters" with
answers in complete sentences in PEN. Thank you.

Dec. 21st:Monday: PLease bring a pen to write a RACER essay, open note, on the "Weighing the Heart Ceremony" in the Hall of Justice. There will also be 10 matching terms with definitions. We will review all. Students have review sheets, primary sources, and advanced graphic organizers which they can study and, if they have questions, they can come before school to ask questions.

Jan. 7th: 2015: Quiz on words used in Essays and difficult to learn works with tricky spellings:
believe, ancient, because, misspell, really, Tuesday, Wednesday, February, Saturday, January,

January 19th: Homework was to have finished actively reading the xeroxed pages, "China's Early History" which we began in class.  There will be a quiz tomorrow, Tuesday, Jan. 19th on the major concepts in the reading. Texts were left in the front officer for several students who were absent on Friday.

"Meng Jiang Nyu" the Chinese Folktale of love and building the Great Wall of Qin, will involve a RACE(R)
essay response on Wed Jan 27or Thursday Jan 28 of next week, depending on snow day on Monday or not.
The final draft will be word-processed with me in class. Every student will have been given a copy of the folktale on Friday, Jan 22nd, to mark up and to read and re-read over the weekend, whether it is a two-day or a three-day weekend. They will be expected to bring it to class on Monday, or if a snow day,on Tuesday.

Feb. 1: please sign and return your child's RACE(R) essay on Tuesday, Feb. 2nd. This week we will be focusing on the reading and writing of an argumentative essay. The subject is "Qin Shinhuangdi: Father of China or Cruel Tyrant?" We will be working on vocabulary, on the structure of the essay, which is different from the RACE(R) format. A final word-processed essay will be written in the learning commons on Thursday and Friday, (due Friday, Feb. 5th). These essays will be counted in the third marking period of your child's grade. Students have been given written homework everday this week to prepare to write this new form of essay.
Due Tuesday, Feb. 16th: Ancient Greek Focus Question sentence starters and answers. Use Pen, complete sentences. etc.
Due Monday, Feb. 22: Sent home Friday, reading on "Athenian Coins" and their importance for homework. Pop quiz Monday?
Due Thursday: Outline of RACE(R) essay on Athenian Democracy. Open note. Final draft on Friday.
Have essay signed and return on Tuesday, March 1st.

Long term assignment: " What was the Athenian Plague of 430/431 BCE?" This medical research project will require students to read in class and read for homework many assigned pages and come to a conclusion as to the best match for Thucydides description (a survivor) of the plague. Students will need to keep accurate notes on their readings, many of which will be provided in class, to determine a good outcome for this reading/writing project. Final written piece will be due, Monday, March 14th, without fail. The grading rubric is as follows: 60% for written essay mentioning the research process,our reading in class of Thucydides account from his work entitled, The History of the  Peloponnesian War, in 430 BCE, after which we filled out a data collection chart in class on March 1, 2, and 3.  We then researched six different diseases on the internet and from research papers on the back table in the classroom. Then students excluded diseases (20%) which did not match the Athenian Plague symptoms. The next step was to fill our their hypothesis (best guess) data sheet.(20%) Finally, with that in hand, they were able to word-process a multiple paragraph essay on their research findings.

April 3rd: Roman test, consisting of matching terms and a one paragraph essay on the Roman Republic and its relation to the government of the United States today.
April 4th: Explanation of an extended "Roman Project" consisting of the choice, of a pair or small team of students from the following list: (Due date: one day in week of April 11-14, To be announced).
1. Master plan and beginning the building of a new city in the empire
2. A typical house of the patrician
3. The planning and construction of an amphitheater
4. The construction and operation of the Roman baths.
All information in this project will be based on the book, City by David Maucaulay, and will be graded in two parts: a word-processed narrative using Latin vocabulary and answering written questions which students will have will them during the project AND a carefully drawn freehand (pencil and paper) copy from the book, illustrating the project chosen by the students. 50% for each part of the project






Eleven Terms of History, Review sheet

1.History: def: the study of what was said and done in the past. Ex: The Civil War or Pharaohs

2. (An) Historian: def: A person who reads Primary Source, Secondary accounts for evidence and interprets
the evidence to find out whether it is true/false and
how important it is. Where? When? Why and How?
Ex: Mrs. Escher

3. Artifact: A human-made object, example Roman coin, or a written document, example, newspaper

4. Chronology: Two Greek root word, chromos= time  and logos=order or sequence make up the
chronology of events in order in your mind
Ex: 1492, 1588. 1776

5. Time-Line: A chart or graph with dates in sequence on it. Ex: your events on your daily time-line at school

6. Primary Source: An eye-witness account by someone who was at an event which she/be describes. An account at the time it describes.
Ex: The Declaration of Independence or The Rosetta Stone
7. Secondary Source/Authority: Def: a writer who has read primary source accounts and writes about it after the fact. Ex: Your textbook
or Jean Francois Champollion, Decoder of the Rosetta Stone



8. Archive: Def: A room or building in which fragile documents or objects are stored at humidity, temperature conditions and acid-free boxes
Ex.: Mudd Library at P.U. Archives, Williams Street

9. Oral History/tradition: Def: Stories, poems, history passed down by word of mouth, especially
by those who have been excluded from learning to
read and write!
Ex: Women, slaves, servants, the poor

10. B.C.E.: Def: A term which is used after a numerical year, to mean, before the common era.
Ex: Ancient Egyptian Old Kingdom 3,000 BCE

11. C.E. Def: A term which is used after a numerical
year to mean after the year “0” in the more modern times,






website for ancient coins.

∂Ancient Maya: Focus Question Notes 1. Architectural Forms: Step stone pyramids of limestone block. Central plazas in cities. Stone ballcourts with viewers stands Stone palaces for the King or Lord of the City-state and the elite courtiers. Similar to Egypt: pyramidal form, exacting dimensions 2. King or Lord of city-state: Needed to speak directly to the gods and ensure balance of universe. Mount to top of pyramid: drew his own blood to burn on special paper, whose smell rose to the gods. Women, too, offered blood sacrifices by threading thorned robes though their tongues and blood caught on special paper 3.TikaL= NYC of the Mayan world. Trade center. 100,000 people for more than a thousand years. Central acropolis, densely populated with thousands of temples. Some painted white or red. Chichen Itza: Home of famous pyramid, “El Mirador” which 79 steps on each of four sides. At spring and fall equinox, the “Plumed Serpent” glides down the steps from heaven and slinks across the land and into a cenote. (Heaven, land, underworld) 4.Math and science: predicting eclipses, math system, including “zero” as place holder for no value. Terrace farming for zea maize (hard corn). Perfect geometry of temples. 5. Maya glyph system=500 glyphs, including ones for day, month and year. System could be added on for complex names and ideas of heros and gods. No other writing system in Native America (except Cherokee as translation to English) 6.Traditions: Shaman religion, native language before Spanish, weaving on back strap loom, planting stick for crops, keeping bees. 7.Zea Maize=staple food crop, grown on terraces on land. Turkeys, avocados, plantain. Cacao for the gods and Lords-foaming drink. 8. 1. Inter-city state warring, depleting population 2. Lost faith in their gods or 3. Destruction of the natural environment 5 17 Ancient Inca Focus Question Notes Due May 27th, Friday after Environmental Ed trips Name: Essential Understandings: Fall, 2016 October 28: Reading on the Five Themes of Civilization. Students read in class and drew examples. *Stone is scared in the Inca world. *The Atacama Desert was high, cold and dry (one of the most barren places on earth) *Nasca engineers pioneered stone channel for water, terraces, and snow melt pools for survival. Still exist and are used today. Discovered gravity feed and cradling. *Incans had large lungs and hearts. *Pre-Inca civilization: ~Moche (art), Nasca (engineering) *Quinoa-high protein grain Pachacuti, “Earth Shaker” took throne of Empire in 1438, and unified separate state by military force in 30 years for 9 million peoples to form his EMPIRE. I ncan cities of Cuzco: giant stone walls with each stone individually hand carved to fit into a contiguous pattern, puzzle pieces using cradling and gravity. 2a: ~Machu Picchu: ~sacred mountain ceremonial sites with “Temple of the Sun” tower. 7,000 feet above sea level. Discovered by Yale archaeologist Hiram Bingham, Jr. in 1911. Alter for casting shadow, possibly planting calendar. 1,200 people living there, using terrace farming and irrigation pools. Crops: ~200+ potatoes, corn, peppers. S Sapa Inca: ~“Son of the Sun” supreme political and religious leader. During the winter solstice, “the Inti Raymi” festival, he drank a corn-based drink, and asked the polytheistic gods to ensure a good harvest. Oversaw all work. Owned all of the land for the gods, people, and himself. R oad system key to empire: Linear empire without wheels, without beasts of burden, without a written language. Spoken language: Quechua, rope tallies: ~quipus for counting communally produced goods. The Royal Couriers were the “Eyes and Ears of the Emperor” and could run, in relays, for 250 miles per day. 15,000 miles of roads, with hemp foot bridges over ravines. Reported to Emperor in his palace at Cuzco, his capital. P opulation pyramid: ~Absolute power in Emperor, the Son of the Sun, then nobles and priests, relatives of the emperor, then other officials, including quipucamayocs, and on the bottom were the farmers. The work ethic allowed communal survival. The emperor owned all Inca land. At harvest all food was divided with ⅓ going to farmers, ⅓ to the emperor, and ⅓ to the gods. All had to perform the “mita tax” of labor, either farming, mining gold and silver, weaving or planting. S tone created terraces on mountainsides, using “snow catch pools” for melt and runoff, and irrigation channels of stone to water in dry and high seasons. Flat strips of land. Crops: 200+ kinds of potatoes, corn (hard) for flour and drinks, peppers. Guinea pigs only protein for many farmers.